Analysis shows wide range in use of 'willful defiance' to suspend students from school

California school districts vary widely in the use of “willful defiance” as a reason for suspending students, a new analysis shows. The study by EdSource found that the 30 largest districts ranged from a high of 71 percent of suspensions based on willful defiance to a low of 11 percent. Critics have said that schools abuse the vaguely defined term to remove students who should be disciplined in other ways and kept on campus. See the EdSource analysis here.

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